The artworks on this page are called polarised light micrographs. They are photographs made using a polarised light microscope. The recipes used to prepare the chemicals are all of my own research and design that I carry out on a daily basis and throughout the past five or so years. There are many factors involved in making the pictures, some of which are showcased here. The pictures were not designed and cannot be designed. Their formations are pure coincidences and are determined by a multitude of factors dictated by the rules of physics and chemistry. The colours that you are see are not artificially added but depend on the interaction that occurs between the light and the nature of the chemicals crystalline structure. However, by using a transparent optical element in the light path called a wave plate, different colour palettes can be achieved, however, it is not possible to selectively alter the colours. There is no digital enhancements or alterations to the images. Some pictures are large panoramas consisiting of many photographs seamlessly stitched together and so they can be printed to a very large size. The prints are made on museum grade Hahnemuhle cotton rag paper which are signed and numbered.

If you would like to purchase a print or commission some art, please feel free to contact me directly through the form on the contact page. Thanks for looking!

"Wildflower Meadow"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 5.

"Corona"

This photograph I think somewhat resembles a "corona" evolving from a series of jets emanating from a central star. But the formation was made from a solution of ammonium sulphate.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 3.

"Wildflower Meadow"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 5.

"Phototropism"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Fantasy Scape"

This photograph resembling "Lollipop Land" is actually a crystalline chemical film consisting of Urea.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Colourful Tropical Plants"

These colourful patterns are not epiphytes from a rainforest canopy, they are crystals of nicotinic acid or vitamin B3.

Print size: 34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 4.

"Alien Plantscape"

Crystals of nicotinic acid resemble an plantscape on an Alien world.

Print size: 34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Nictonic Leaves"

Nicotinic acid crystals resemble Autumn leaf litter on the forest floor.

Print size: 34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 3 of 3.

"Nicotinic Flower"

Print size: 34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 2.

"Three Phases in MSG"

Three phases of matter - solid, liquid and gas in coexistence. A molten droplet of monosodium glutamate (MSG) with numerous air bubbles. The bubbles behave like lenses, focusing images of the crystalline substrate beneath. Molten MSG streams around the droplet and you can see the smooth streamlines on top. Refraction and dispersion colours can be seen around the skin of the droplet as light bends around the skin. The internal bubbles can be seen to focus images from the substrate below while convection currents are made visible in the molten globule. Cracks appear in the crystalline substrate because of stresses.

Print size: 34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Sucrose Bubbles"

In a race to minimise energy and reach an energetically favoured state of equilibrium, a tug-of-war ensues between many thousands of trapped air pockets and the compressing effects of the surrounding viscous liquid. A bubble is a balancing act of forces that occur between it's internal air pressure pushing outward on its membrane and the compressive forces of the surrounding liquid trying to crush it inwards. As a result, the molecular field density and thus the optical path length surrounding the air pockets will be significantly distorted. This effect can be seen by the vivid coloured bands immediately surrounding the bubble aggregations.

Print size: 34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 2 of 15.

"Epsom Salt Crystals"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 3.

"Epsom Salt Crystal"

Print size: 34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 3.

"Swaying in the Current"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

A dash of skin cream is made to crystallise and this is the result.

"Tropical Garden"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 3.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 4.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 4.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Skin Cream"

Print size: 34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 5.

"Colours for Ukraine"

Print size: 34.50cm x 47.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

Made on 7th January 2022

"Vines"

Print size: 34.50cm x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Hanging Plants"

47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

This is a crystallised chemical cocktail consisting of ammonium nickel nitrate and potassium cyanide.

Made on 12th January 2022

"Chemical Plant"

47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

This is a crystallised chemical cocktail consisting of silver and copper sulphates.

Made on 20th January 2022

34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

Made on 11th January 2022

34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

Made on 11th January 2022

"Floral Growth"

34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

This is a crystallised chemical cocktail consisting of sodium and cobalt chloride with copper sulphate and ammonium nickel nitrate.

Made on 12th January 2022

"Hanging Vines"

34.50 x 47.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

This is a crystallised chemical cocktail consisting of ammonium iron sulphate and cobalt chloride.

Made on 21st January 2022

"Florals"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Coastal Reefs"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Leafy Beanstalks"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Pastel Vines"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Luminescent Inflorescence"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

Partially lit to one side by sunlight, soon these flower buds will unfurl into a wondrous display of pollinator-attracting flowers. One might be fooled into thinking that this photograph is indeed exactly what is described but this is actually a thin crystalline film spontaneously formed from a chemical cocktail consisting of various sulphate salts.

"Glistening Flower Buds"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Nocturnal Blooms"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 15.

"Canyon Plants"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Autumn Flower"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 12.

"Desert Bromeliad"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Salicin Forest"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Crystal Trees"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

Print size: 34.50cm x 47.50

Signed 2 of 7.

"Botanical Perfumes"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 5 of 7.

A mixture of iron and potassium cyanide imaged in polarised light yields this striking picture in what immediately brings to mind of a bed of flowers and giant petals with pollinating fireflies or glowing fragrances.

"Through the Trees"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Overgrown Garden"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Christmas Poinsettia"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

A burgeoning crystalline flower of iron and potassium salts unfolds from the centre of a nucleation point.

"Unfurling Beauty"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 12.

Somewhat resembling a plant, such as a garden weed, with its perianth unfurling into petals and sepals. Garden weeds are generally thought of as being ugly pests. Next time, give them a closer look, and you'll see how beautiful they really are, whilst providing an important link in the grander ecosystem. The image is in fact the crystallisation of an analgesic medication, imaged with polarised light microscopy.

"Secret Garden"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 4 of 7.

Shafts of light filtering through openings in the dense canopy above, illuminate gethe forest floor in a patchwork of darkness and illumination. This cluster of exuberant emerald foliage coating the floor of the virgin rainforest is briefly lit and captured in this dream-like picture. The image is made from a mixture of chemicals consisting of potassium salts and iron sulphate, imaged with polarised light microscopy.

"Heavenly-Ascent"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Bromeliad Forest"

Print size: 34.50cm x 47.50cm

Signed 3 of 15.

"Nocturnal Flora"

Print size: 34.50cm x 47.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Botanical Symmetry"

Print size: 34.50cm x 47.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Exquisite Beauty"

Print size: 34.50cm x 47.50cm

Signed 4 of 7.

An exquisite chemical flower emerges out of chaos, unfolding into the most sumptuous flower.

"Fossilised Bromeliad"

Print size: 34.50cm x 47.50cm

Signed 3 of 12.

This image shows the crystallisation of an analgestic medication, imaged with polarised light microscopy. The features created during the process are reminiscent of a tropical Bromeliad flower.

"The Harvest"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

The first few stars begin to appear high in the sky as the Sun begins to cross the horizon. Its orange light is cast through the atmosphere creating a multicoloured sky of pinks, purples and greens via Rayleigh scattering.

I call this one "The Harvest" because it brings to mind a scene of a crop field during the Golden Hour.

"Sticks of Fire"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

Salicin, an anti-inflammatory medication, imaged using polarised light microscopy. The formation brings to mind a plant native to the semi-arid and tropical climate of Africa called Sticks of Fire. Who knew that anti-inflammatory medication could evoke such images of nature?

"Roots of Fire"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Winter Dusk"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Rays of Dawn"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

Named for its early morning hues casting down on a corn field. If you look closely, you might see faint stars in the sky. This image was made from a mixture of medicinal medications and health supplements and photographed under a microscope.

"Red Sky at Night"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Ice Swans"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Sunlit Shafts"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Barley Fields"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Sunlit Undergrowth"

47.50cm x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Emergence"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Forest Sunset"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Yellow Lichen"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Mycelium Undergrowth"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Vegetable Garden"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

A bed of cabbages in the alotment perhaps? This is the crystallographic product of caesium chloride.

"Chemical Nebula"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

"Autumn Leaf Litter"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

As winter is fast approaching in Northern Europe, the Sun tracks lower and lower across the Southern sky. It’s radiance begins to wane and the green chlorophyll pigments within the cells of leaves begin to break down, giving way to golden yellows and vibrant reds and oranges. Besides chlorophyll, plants also contain other pigments called carotenoids and anthocyanins which give leaves their autumn colours when the green chlorophyll disappears. The colour change takes place in order for plants and trees to save valuable energy. The production of chlorophyll is an energy expensive process and so plants break down chlorophyll and pump it out of the leaves for storage before letting the leaves fall away. Sunlight reflects differently off the leaves depending on the levels of carotenoids and anthocyanins present within them. Carotenoids produce yellows, oranges and red whilst anthocyanins produce reds, pinks and purple colours. This image is not of a forest floor strewn with leaves however, but is a stain left behind from a solution of caesium chloride.

"Veranera - The Woody Vine"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 7.

This image of caesium chloride brings to mind a particular plant native to Amazonia - the tropical climbing woody vine, Bougainvillea, also known as Veranera. It's beautiful magenta-scarlet inflorescence consists of three leaf-like petals called bracts that surround it's delicate white flowers. Veranera conserves it's resources by using the tree as a scaffold, wrapping their tendrils around the trunk and branches in a tight vice-like grip. By doing so, energy is conserved, allowing the plant to expend it on other processes like rapid growth and accelerated leaf production. It's leaves are alternately arranged along it's stems.

"Nature Lover"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 12.

"Late Summer"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Red Rose"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 2 of 12.

"Cosmic Flower"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 3 of 7.

"Nature"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.

"Floral Display"

Print size: 47.50 x 34.50cm

Signed 1 of 7.